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      運用語篇語言學知識,提高英語閱讀教學主題主旨理解能力

      更新時間:2021-11-01

      微信圖片_20211027103521.jpg

      成都雙流區教育科學研究院   鄧兆昂


      近年來,許多學者提倡將語篇語言分析應用于英語閱讀教學之中,為學生提供一種可以參照的具體方法。對一個語篇進行分析,我們可以從語音、詞匯、語法、語義、語篇結構等各個方面入手,但在實際分析中,我們不必求全,而是要根據語篇的特點,在幾個最突出、最具有代表性的方面進行深入分析【黃國文,1988】。本文強調讀短文,應用語篇語言學知識之銜接(cohesion)與連貫(coherence) 理論,提取關鍵詞概括語篇主題主旨;運用語篇策略, 提取關鍵詞概括主題句;提取核心內容,支撐主題、主旨大意。 


      (一)提取關鍵詞概括主旨大意或主題句。在沒有明確的主題句的情況下, 學生需要通過信息定位、提取和整合分散在原文中的關鍵詞,對段落或者篇章進行主旨概括。運用語篇的銜接與連貫 , 從詞匯銜接的角度, 找出文本中的主要實詞, 構成敘述的詞匯鏈, 具體要求:

      How to catch the key words: focusing on nouns, verbs , key adjectives.

      [示例分析1]

      Sitting on the peaceful coast of Galapagos Islands. Ecuador, watching the sun move quietly into the sea, you shouldn’t forget that Charles Darwin (1809-1882) arrived here in 1835. He stayed on the islands for five weeks, observing various animals. This finally inspired (啟發) his famous work, On the Origin of Species. You can certainly follow Darwin’s footsteps and enjoy a trip from four to seven days to the islands.Travelling between the islands and observing the wildlife that so inspired Darwin, you will feel as though you are getting a special view of an untouched world. At night you will sleep on board the ship, leaving the wildlife in complete occupation of the islands, which are as undisturbed now as they have been since the beginning of time.

      提取關鍵詞概括主題句,主旨大意:

      ①構成vocabulary chain: 提取名詞, 人物名詞, Ecuador( a tourist)/ Charles Darwin , 地名Galapagos Islands

      ②實體名詞或形容詞+實體名詞:  the sun/ the sea/ the islands/ a trip/ the wildlife/the peaceful coast/ various animals/ famous work/a special view/ an untouched world/ on board the ship 丶…

      ③語義聚合:key adjectives:peaceful/untouched/various/famous/special可以推斷Galapagos Islands is a very attractive place.

      ④提取Verb-ing: sitting/watching/observing/travelling

      主題句(標題): Galapagos Islands - an Attractive Place for Tourists.

      主旨大意: Galapagos Islands is an attractive place for tourists,inspiring Charles Darwin to create his masterpieces.


      (二)運用語篇策略, 提取關鍵詞概括主題句:

      [示例分析2] 

      I was never very neat, while my roommate Kate was extremely organized. Each of her objects had its place, but mine always hid somewhere. She even labeled (貼標簽 ) everything. I always looked for everything. Over time, Kate got neater and I got messier. She would push my dirty clothing over, and I would lay my books on her tidy desk. We both got tired of each other.

      全文運用語篇策略之對照(contrast),關鍵詞是連接詞while , but; 對比形容詞nearer與messier。但短文的結論句是:We both got tired of each other.

      因此最佳主題句: Different Living habits affected roomates’ feelings.

      (三)提取核心內容,支撐主題,主旨大意。

      理清信息的主次, 避免因為分不清楚主次而包含太多的細節內容。核心內容是為了表明作者的寫作目的或論證作者觀點而使用的具體論據,通常不能省略;細節描寫是對文本內容進行更細致和深入的描述, 往往只起到突出和強調的作用, 通常被省略。

      一般而言, 信息之間的邏輯關系可以幫助區分信息的主次關系。在一般和具體的關系中,主要內容往往是一般的, 較多使用抽象詞,次要內容較多使用具體的詞。通過分析下面這個段落來具體了解如何區分主要信息和次要信息, 提取核心內容,支撐主旨大意:

      [示例分析3]  

      Sept 13 marked what would have been Dahl’s 100th birthday. So far, his books are estimated to have been sold more than 250 million copies worldwide. In 2013, he beat Harry Potter author J. K. Rowling to be named the best children’s author of all time by British parents and their children. And movie adaptations of his works continue to hit the big screen, including US director Steven Spielberg’s take on The BFG, which will come out in China on Oct 14th.

      提取劃線部份核心內容, 該語篇主題句: Dahl has made great achievements of children’s literature.

      運用語篇語言學知識,提升英語閱讀教學之主題主旨理解能力。教師在閱讀教學中應不僅局限于文本,還要對非文本資源進行挖掘,培養學生對這些資源的識讀能力,提升對語篇進行批判性閱讀的能力(陳則航語)。運用語篇語言學知識來研究多模態文本下的語篇之主旨主題則是另一篇文章討論的話題。  語篇語言學知識是實施語篇分析的指導性工具, 也是歸納語篇主旨, 主題意義的理論依據。在日常的英語閱讀教學中,要堅持語篇語言學理論與具體的語篇分析相結合,不斷修正語言學知識運用中的錯誤,才能提升英語閱讀教學之主題主旨理解能力。

      (2021.10.18)



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